Gardening in July: This is one of the most productive months in the garden, but there’s still time to plant and plenty to enjoy
- Keep up with deadheading bedding plants, sweet peas and roses. The flowers on dahlias will need to be cut off once they’ve started to fade.
- Many of the traditional English cottage perennials such as lupins, delphiniums and geraniums are starting to look past their best now so cut them right back down and they’ll resprout. They may not flower again but they’ll look a lot better.
- Water and feed everything regularly, especially tomatoes, to avoid problems. Also tie them in to their canes and pinch out the side shoots if necessary.
- The last sowing of French beans and carrots can be done now. Transplant purple sprouting broccoli and winter leeks to their final position, or buy them as plugs from a garden center or nursery.
- Keep sowing seeds for salads, a few at a time, as well as autumn crop peas, turnips and spring cabbages.
- Keep an eye on apples and plums to make sure there are not too many on each stem and thin out if necessary – just three or four is enough.
- There should still be some strawberries ripening. Check there is enough straw under the plants to keep fruit off the soil. If you’ve been pegging down the strawberry runners, by now they should have formed enough roots to enable you to transplant them, either to pots to keep safe until they can be put in the ground, or straight into a new strawberry bed.
- Strawberries and other soft fruit should be ripe and ready to collect now.
- Pick and freeze or dry herbs so they can be used later.
- A lot of the earlier-sown vegetables will be ready in July, for instance peas and broad beans, French and runner beans, globe artichokes, carrots and beetroot.
- Keep an eye on fruit; cherries, peaches, gooseberries, raspberries and early plums are really starting to ripen.
- This is something that’s easy to do, but easy to get wrong, and often the main problem is under watering. If you spray an area of planting for one minute and move on, the water is unlikely to have gone deeper than a few millimeters into the soil, so won’t have penetrated anywhere near the roots.
- You need to water like a rain cloud. One way to test this is to put a jam jar in among the plants you’re watering and stop when there’s about 2cm of water in the jar. That’s likely to take about 10-20 minutes on each area, which is understandably daunting. It’s one of the reasons why leaky hose systems, which deliver water to the soil via a porous hose and operate at the turn of a tap, are so appealing.
- It’s a good time to get rid of strongly growing perennial weeds such as ground elder and bindweed. Use a systemic weed killer such as glyphosate that will enter the weed through its leaves and should kill it off.
- July in rose-growing circles is known as the month for black spot. If you find it, remove the affected leaves and spray the plant with fungicide. The same goes for another fungus, mildew, which can also become a problem in July if the roses are stressed by having too much or too little water. Try to spray the fungicide early in the morning so you don’t affect any bees that might be buzzing around the plant. Finally don’t forget to deadhead the roses to keep them flowering.
- Keep mowing the lawn if it’s not parched and, if it’s looking tired, July is the last opportunity to apply a summer fertilizer. If it’s dry you may need to water your lawn. Use a specialist lawn weed killer if necessary.
- If you have a conifer hedge, especially a leylandii one, keep a close eye on it at this time of year for cypress aphids. It’s difficult to see the aphids themselves so look for brown patches in the hedge and a black sooty mold along the stem. If you find it, the best thing to do is prune out any brown shoots and spray affected areas with pesticide.
Deadheading bedding plants and border perennials is important to keep your displays looking fresh and tidy. Get more flowers in borders, containers and hanging baskets by adding a liquid feed once a week.
IF YOU ONLY DO ONE THING…
…Go into borders, lift leaves and have a look around. Often it’s not a good idea to go looking for problems, but in the garden it pays to have a rummage, as the fresh growth of the past months can hide and feed pests, and weeds can grow unseen under it.
Vegetables That Are Perfect to Plant in Late Summer
The long dog days of summer are here as the days are hotter and the sun sets late into the night. Any cool season vegetable you had in your garden are at the end of their days and warm season veggies are still going strong. Now it is time to grow vegetables that are perfect to plant in late summer for the fall.
Squash plants encompass many different subspecies of plants. In the squash family you have cucumbers, zucchini from yellow crookneck to pattypans to green beauties. Then add in your winter squash like acorn, butternut, and gourds. Don’t forget the many varieties of pumpkins that also fall into this category from Jack O’Lanterns to minis and sugars to Giants. All of these plants are perfect to get into your garden around the 4th of July.
Winter squash is planted in the summer and then can overwinter for months at a time. Planting pumpkins in July allows them to be ready to carve by Halloween and cooked up for pumpkin pie by Thanksgiving.
A few root vegetables do best when planted in late summer and then come to maturity in the cool days of fall. This is the perfect time to plant beets, turnips, fennel, kohlrabi, and radishes. You can also get in a few succession plantings of carrots if you live where you get cool summer nights. Bunching onions like scallions and garlic chives also do great when planted in late summer.
Quite a few green vegetables do best when planted in late summer. This allows the seeds to warm up and germinate, but the plant matures as the nights get longer and cooler. Start from seed Swiss Chard, kale, collard greens, cabbage, broccoli, and spinach. These plants will need to be well watered until the summer heat dies down to build a healthy root system.
Tomatoes are a true heat-loving plant! When grown in late summer, start with transplants instead of seeds as it is too warm for them to germinate. Once the temperatures drop below 75 degrees then the plant will flower and produce buds. Tomatoes like to produce in the sweet spot between 55° and 75° which is perfect fall weather!
Do you have a favorite vegetable you are planting now for fall harvest? If so, what is it!?
Summer Rose Care Tips
Aahh, mid summer. This is the time of the year when all the annuals you planted this spring are finally blooming. And the long, warm days seem to intensify the fragrance of summer blooming Lilies and roses. It’s the time to revel in the glory of the garden.
But, then you notice a few flaws. Uh, oh, that rose plant over there just doesn’t look like it’s doing very well. What’s the deal? Mid summer, in all it’s glory, can also create stressful conditions for plants. All that heat causes plants to move water through their systems (evapotranspiration) pretty quickly. If plants don’t have enough water, they get stressed out in the heat. They can’t just pick themselves up and move into the shade or go get a drink of water like we can.
As you look a bit closer you notice there are some funny looking bugs covering the new growth on your roses. Mid summer can bring out the aphids in full force. Especially, if you haven’t had any recent heavy rains to wash them off the plants.
Then you notice that a rose in the corner has some funny spots on its leaves, a few leaves are turning yellow, and some have fallen off the plant. Oh god, blackspot!
And, then you start thinking that perhaps your roses aren’t blooming as much as they should be. If your soil is a bit low on the fertility scale, the blooms may be in short supply. What to do, what to do!! First, don’t worry. These minor problems are just that — minor. And, they’re easily fixed.
The most important thing your roses need this time of year is water. They demand the equivalent of at least one inch of rain each week. That’s about equal to one gallon of water per plant. So, if it hasn’t rained, give your roses some water.
The best way to water your roses is with a soaker hose that causes the water to slowly saturate the soil. These are usually made out of recycled tires and can be laid right on top of the soil and covered with mulch. This works great — no evaporation and the water slowly soaks into the soil. I actually run mine overnight. The mulch on top of the hose prevents any water from squirting onto the roses, so watering at night is great. Just remember to turn off the hose in the morning. Or, better yet, set it on a timer.
Water is the ultimate “fertilizer.” It moves nutrients from the soil into the plant. And a consistent supply prevents the rose from getting stressed by heat. A nonstressed, healthy rose can better defend itself from insects and disease.
Mid summer bug problems on roses are usually caused by aphids. They are almost always found on the new growth of rose plants. They seem to come out in full force in mid summer when there hasn’t been much rain. Aphids suck the juices out of your roses and can cause leaves to curl and be disfigured.
The best defense against aphids is healthy plants that have received adequate amounts of water. The second best defense is a good supply of ladybugs in your garden. I release these aphid eaters every two weeks during early summer and mid summer. They really clean up the aphid problems. Sometimes I have to wait a few days after the release to see the effects, but they do a great job in reducing aphid problems.
If the rain hasn’t come and the ladybugs haven’t done their job, then you need to stop the aphids before they take over. Insectidal soaps work great — they don’t hurt bees, fish, kids or you. But they’ll kill most soft bodied insects. It works by suffocating them.
The trick to success with insectidal soap is to apply it twice. First, spray it on the aphids (it has to have contact with the bug to work) late in the day — usually right before sunset. Spraying late in the day prevents leaf damage caused by the sun hitting the spray or heat reacting with the spray. Then, two days later go out and spray any aphids that escaped your first spray. You’ll be amazed at how quickly they reproduce! If you miss one, you’ll quickly have hundreds in a matter of days. I think they’re born pregnant.
Another quick way to get rid of aphids is to squish them between your fingers. Or, if you can’t handle that, then wash them off the plant with water — a hose set on high pressure works well (be careful not to blast the leaves off your plants).
Rose diseases are what keeps lots of people from growing roses. The idea of dragging out an arsenal of chemicals and spraying them over the entire garden once a week is enough to cause even the most undaunted gardener to wonder what the heck they’re doing.
What to do? First, decide what you’re willing to accept. Remember the words to a Joni Mitchell song, “please farmer farmer put away that DDT, leave the spots on the apples and give me the birds and the bees.” If chemical control is not for you, you can still grow roses. First, you have to select roses that are less susceptible to disease and then you have to keep them healthy by planting them in the right spot and giving them enough water and the right kind of food.
Right plant in the right place. Every garden is filled with “microclimates” that can be good for some plants and certain death for others. You know that corner spot in your garden that always has mosquitoes and slugs hanging out in the damp shade? Don’t plant a rose there. It will get disease, unless its made out of plastic. Plant your rose in sun with good air circulation and it will have what it needs to stay healthy without spraying. If it gets disease, consider replacing it with a variety that has more disease resistance.
Organic sprays. If you have a disease problem, there are organic products you can apply to your plants to prevent and control the diseases. Before World War II, there were very few agricultural chemicals used to control plant disease. And guess what, people were growing roses way before World War II.
To avoid disease problem, remember to: select roses that have good resistance to disease, plant them in the right spot, and feed and water them well.
Roses are known as “heavy feeders” (or how about gluttons) when it comes to using up soil nutrients. But, they convert all those nutrients into a ton of blossoms, which is why we grow them, right?! So, if we expect them to bloom, we have to feed them.
We’ve got lots of pages devoted to fertilizing, which I’ve listed below. But, before you leave this page, there are a few pointers to keep in mind when fertilizing.
- Don’t apply liquid fertilizers to dry soils. The roses will suck up the fertilizer quickly and it may cause the leaves to burn.
- Avoid using liquid chemical fertilizers — especially on Rugosas! These types of fertilizers cause the most leaf burn and leaf drop. You don’t want to hurt your plants with fertilizers.
- Feed the soil, which in turn feeds the plants.
To prevent your plants hanging their heads in summer, they need plenty of water. But how much, how often, water from above or below? Here you find some smart and helpful facts for watering your plants.
Rule no. 1: Keep evenly moist
Most plants depend on even moisture. However, slight drying out before watering promotes root growth of the plants.
Rule no. 2: Water more seldom but then thoroughly
In the flower bed, one to two watering sessions per week are usually sufficient: better to water more seldom but with plenty of water rather than a little water often.
Rule no. 3: Water late in the evening or early in the morning
When you water cooled soil in the evening or night then less water evaporates than as on hot soil during the day. And the plants can sufficiently supply themselves with water before the next day’s heat.
Rule no. 4: Keep leaves dry
Wet leaves become diseased leaves. Kept wet overnight, leaf-mould diseases may result. Leaves that are made wet in the sun develop slight burn marks (burning glass effect of the water droplets).
Requirement-suited watering means that the water must sufficiently reach the roots. Too-low water quantities often only cover the upper soil centimetres – or don’t even reach them at all, e.g. when there is a mulch covering of the soil and too little irrigation. Requirement-suited watering also means that crop plants are particularly dependent upon evenly moist soil in the time until their crops are ripe for harvesting (examples: the forming of roots and corms [carrots, potatoes], leaves [basil, field salad], heads [cauliflower, lettuce], husks [beans] or fruit [tomatoes, fruit]).
Rule no. 5: Give the right water quantity
Rule no. 6: Give larger water quantities in parts
Water needs a moment to seep into the soil. Before precious water in the bed flows away unused, it’s better to water repeatedly in parts.
Rule no. 7: Water with a target but distribute
Always watering at only one root point leads to one-sided root growth and thereby to poorer nutrient absorption in the soil. Therefore, always water around the plant and distribute in the entire irrigation area.
Rule no. 8: Irrigate in a way that saves water
Water as much as necessary and as little as possible. This is simplified with an automatic irrigation system with moisture sensor – in the bed, on the balcony and on the lawn.
Rule no. 9: Avoid waterlogging
Waterlogging suppresses the breathing air of the roots out of the soil – the root cells drown without oxygen.
Rule no. 10: Use quality, clay-rich soil
Plant soil rich in clay minerals has better expanding properties and can therefore hold soil in the water better and in a more even way. In wet summers and in winter, ensure water drainage to prevent waterlogging.
WHAT TO DO DURING A DROUGHT
- Spray Trees & Shrubs With An Anti-Transpirant
If pruning, only remove dead material from trees and shrubs, anything more will encourage new growth. This takes energy that a drought stressed plant cannot afford. Instead, spray leaves with an anti-transpirant or anti-dessicant to help leaves retain what moisture they have.
- Water Early
Morning temperatures are cooler and the sun is not as intense as later in the day so there is less moisture loss due to evaporation.
Also, water sitting on foliage will have a chance to dry during the day minimizing the chance of fungal infection, especially during humid weather.
- Water Slowly & Deeply
Watering slowly will allow the moisture to penetrate more deeply into the root zone rather than running off the soil surface. Create depressions or water traps around larger plants to hold the water where you want it until it can saturate the soil. Remember to water trees at the drip line, not at the trunk base, as this is where the roots are most active. Drip irrigation bags are excellent for watering newly planted trees.
- Water the Soil, Not the Leaves
Plants take up water through their roots. Water landing on the foliage will be lost due to evaporation. The more water you direct to the soil, the less you will waste. The key is infrequent, but heavy watering rather than light, frequent waterings. This encourages deep root growth, which increases drought tolerance.
- Conserve Precious Water
Place a rain barrel under downspouts to collect rainwater. Wash the car on the lawn rather than on the driveway. Reuse ‘gray water’, such as bathtub or dishwater and rinse cycle water from your laundry, to water your garden. Replace leaky hoses and sprinklers and use washers to correct leaks at fittings.